- Plural of caper
- third-person singular of caper
The caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a perennial spiny shrub that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and big white to pinkish-white flowers. A caper is also the pickled bud of this plant. The bush is native to the Mediterranean region, growing wild on walls or in rocky coastal areas throughout. The plant is best known for the edible bud and fruit (caper berry) which are usually consumed pickled. Other species of Capparis are also picked along with C. spinosa for their buds or fruits.
Capparis spinosa is highly variable in nature in its native habitats and is found growing near the closely related species C. sicula, C. orientalis, and C. aegyptia. Scientists can use the known distributions of each species to identify the origin of commercially prepared capers. The shrubby plant is many-branched, with alternate leaves, thick and shiny, round to ovate in shape. The flowers are complete, sweetly fragrant, showy, with four sepals, and four white to pinkish-white petals, many long violet-colored stamens, and a single stigma usually rising well above the stamens.
CultivationCapers can be grown easily from fresh seed, gathered from ripe fruit and planted into well drained seed-raising mix. Seedlings will appear in 2-4 weeks. Old, stored seeds enter a state of dormancy and require cold stratification in order to germinate. Cuttings from semi-hardwood shoots taken in Autumn may root, but this is not a reliable means of propagation. Caper plants prefer full sun in warm/temperate climates and should be treated much like cacti. They require regular watering in summer and very little during winter and are deciduous, though in warmer climates they may simply stop growing. Capers have a curious reaction to sudden increases in humidity - they form wart-like pock marks across the leaf surface. This appears to be harmless as the plant quickly adjust to the new conditions and produce unaffected leaves. Seedling capers can be expected to flower from the second to third year and live for at least decades, and probably much longer.
Culinary usesThe salted and pickled caper bud (also called caper) is often used as a seasoning or garnish. Capers are a common ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine. The mature fruit of the caper shrub is also prepared similarly, and marketed as caper berries.
The buds, when ready to pick, are a dark olive green and about the size of a kernel of maize. They are picked, then pickled in salt, or a salt and vinegar solution.
Capers are a distinctive ingredient in Sicilian and southern Italian cooking, used in salads, pizzas, meat dishes and pasta sauces. Examples of uses in Italian cuisine are chicken piccata and salsa puttanesca. They are also often served with cold smoked salmon or cured salmon dishes (especially lox and cream cheese). Capers are also sometimes substituted for olives to garnish a martini.
Capers are categorized and sold by their size, defined as follows, with the smallest sizes being the most desirable: Non-pareil (0-7 mm), surfines (7-8 mm), capucines (8-9 mm), capotes (9-11 mm), fines (11-13 mm), and grusas (14+ mm).
Unripe nasturtium seeds can be substituted for capers; they have a very similar texture and flavour when pickled.
Medicinal usesIn Greek popular medicine a herbal tea made of caper root and young shoots is considered to be beneficial against rheumatism. Dioscoride (MM 2.204t) also provides instructions on the use of sprouts, roots, leaves and seeds in the treatment of strangury and inflammation.
HistoryThe caper was used in ancient Greece as a carminative. It is represented in archaeological levels in the form of carbonised seeds and rarely as flowerbuds and fruits from archaic and Classical antiquity contexts. Athenaeus in Deipnosophistae pays a lot of attention to the caper, as do Pliny (NH XIX, XLVIII.163) and Theophrastus.
The caper-berry is mentioned in the Bible in the book of Ecclesiastes as "avionah" according to modern interpretation of the word.
- Gernot Katzer's Spice Dictionary — Caper
- Caper factsheet — NewCROP, Purdue University
- Article about the capers of Salina Island
- Capparidaceae (alternative name for Capparaceae) in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
- Capers, The Flower Inside About Greek capers
capers in Belarusian: Каперсы
capers in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Каперсы
capers in Catalan: Taperera
capers in Czech: Kapara trnitá
capers in Danish: Kapers
capers in German: Kaper
capers in Modern Greek (1453-): Κάππαρη
capers in Spanish: Capparis spinosa
capers in Esperanto: Kaporo
capers in Persian: کبر
capers in French: Câpre
capers in Galician: Alcaparra
capers in Italian: Capparis spinosa
capers in Hebrew: צלף קוצני
capers in Lithuanian: Kaparis
capers in Dutch: Kappertje
capers in Japanese: ケッパー
capers in Norwegian: Kapers
capers in Polish: Kapary cierniste
capers in Portuguese: Alcaparra
capers in Russian: Каперсы
capers in Slovenian: Kapra
capers in Finnish: Kapris
capers in Swedish: Kapris
capers in Ukrainian: Каперси
capers in Chinese: 續隨子